nasopnaryngeal carcinoma radiotherapy dose
Twice daily radiotherapy for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas are most prevalent in South East Asia. Up to 10 to 20% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma may experience a local relapse. Treatment options for recurrent nasopharyngealcarcinoma are dependent on a few factors. Time since first radiotherapy, extent of disease, and patient’s status etc. must be considered. Re-irradiation is one of these treatment […]

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Proton therapy for esophageal carcinoma

Dose comparison image credit to Oklahoma Proton Center. Esophageal cancer is a malignancy that arises in the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. For early-staged esophageal cancers ( small tumours without nodal spread), surgery alone is sufficient. When tumours are bigger or have spread to lymph nodes, chemotherapy and/or […]

Skull base Chordoma
Skull base chordomas

Chordoma is a rare tumour which is thought to arise from remnants of the embryonic notochord (cartilage). Generally, it is slow-growing, although rarely, some chordomas can be more aggressive. It can grow anywhere along the spine column. Today we will discuss skull base chordomas specifically due to the complex treatment strategy required. Managing base of […]

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Human Papilloma Virus related oral cancer

Surgery in oral cancers? Lower doses of radiotherapy for HPV cancers? Oropharyngeal carcinomas can be caused by environmental factors (smoking, alcohol etc.) or viral-driven. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a common transmitted disease, has been associated with the development of many cancers, including oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) of the head and neck. While traditional, environmentally […]

Adult gliomas types

What are gliomas and the different types? Gliomas are a type of tumor that arises from glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. Glial cells provide support and protection to neurons, and there are different types of glial cells, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells. Gliomas […]

What is proton therapy?

Proton radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses beams of protons, rather than traditional X-rays, to precisely target and deliver higher doses of radiation to tumors while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy is often used in the treatment of certain types of cancers, especially when precise targeting is crucial and minimizing […]